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Bioassays and biomarkers for ecotoxicological assessment of reclaimed municipal wastewater


TitleBioassays and biomarkers for ecotoxicological assessment of reclaimed municipal wastewater
Publication TypeBook
Year of Publication2008
AuthorsKontana A, Papadimitriou CA, Samaras P, Zdragas A, Yiangou M
Volume57
Series Volume6
Number of Pages947-953
ISBN Number02731223
Keywordsanimal cell, Animals, article, assessment method, bacterium, Bioassay, Bioassays, Biological Assay, biological marker, Biological Markers, biomarker, Biomarkers, cell culture, Cells, Chemical, Concentration (process), culture medium, Cultured, cytokine production, Daphnia, Daphnia magna, ecotoxicity, Ecotoxicology, effluent, endotoxin, gamma interferon, Immune response, Interferon Type II, interleukin 1, interleukin 10, interleukin 2, Interleukin-1, Interleukin-10, Interleukin-2, Mice, microbiology, Mitogenic response, mitogenicity, Molecular biomarkers, Molecular Structure, mouse, nonhuman, parameter, physical chemistry, physicochemical property, phytotoxicity, Reclamation, Reuse, Spleen, spleen cell, Tertiary treatment, Tetrahymena, Tetrahymena thermophila, Th2 cell, tumor necrosis factor alpha, Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha, Vibrio fischeri, waste water recycling, wastewater, Wastewater treatment, Water analysis, Water Pollutants, water sampling, Water Supply, water treatment
Abstract

The aim of this work was to examine the ecotoxicity of reclaimed wastewater by the use of bioassays and the determination of immunological parameters. Secondary and tertiary mucicipal wastewater samples were examined for their physicochemical and microbiological characteristics as well as for their endotoxin concentrations. The ecotoxicological characteristics were assessed by a battery of bioassays, using Vibrio fischeri, Daphnia magna and Tetrahymena thermophilla as test species and phytotoxicity. The mitogenic responses of mouse splenocytes were as well used as bioassay. The cytokines of IL-1, IL-2, IL-10, IFNγ and TNFα, were also determined in the supernatant of splenocyte cultures and served as molecular biomarkers. All bioassays exhibited decrease of the ecotoxicological responses after tertiary treatment. However, mitogenic responses were proved to be more sensitive. IL-1 increased, while IL-2 production was unaffected. The fact that IL-IO production increased in response to secondary treated effluents in conjunction with the increased endotoxin levels, suggest Th2 type immune responses. Although results obtained from the toxicity bioassays after the tertiary treatment showed comparable results to those of controls, cytokine levels indicated the induction of immune response even after tertiary treatment. Consequently, cytokine production could be used as a sensitive biomarker for the evaluation of treatment efficiency of the reclaimed wastewaters intended for reuse. © IWA Publishing 2008.